2.3.4 (Jul 29, 2020)
Sep 26, 2017
May 26, 2021 (Retired)
Agoda Company Pte Ltd. (agoda-com)
Iñaki Villar (cdsap)
Anton Nurdin Tuhadiansyah (anton46)
Oleksii Malovanyi (almozavr)
Sebastien ROUIF (sebastienrouif)
Ash Davies (ashdavies)
Paul Hawke (psh)
Keita Kagurazaka (k-kagurazaka)
Konstantin Aksenov (Vacxe)
Tipatai Puthanukunkit (Judrummer)
Bhargav Mogra (bhargavms)
Kasper Kondzielski (ghostbuster91)
Verachad Wongsawangtham (VerachadW)
Peerapon Chantharainthron (peerapon01)
nut j. (nutjane)
Joey Kaan (jkaan)
Anatolii Afanasev (aafanasev)
Show all (33)33
Source code


Kakao project is now being developed here: KakaoCup/Kakao.

Kudos to all contributors and maintainers!

This repo is no longer supported.

Archived versions are available in maven central, for new releases please follow a new repo.


Nice and simple DSL for Espresso in Kotlin


At Agoda, we have more than 1000 automated tests to ensure our application's quality and give our best experience to the user. All of them are written with Espresso from Google. Even though Espresso is working really well with our test, the code readability is quite low. Let's look at some of the examples of how we write the test.

onView(allOf(withId(R.id.price_item), hasDescendant(withText("Standard Rate"))))

This is an example just to check the visibility and you can see that it's not looking that good. As Agoda developers, we want to improve not just our codebase quality, but also our implementation of tests as well. This is why we are introducing Kakao. The library that will make you enjoy writing automated tests like you are drinking a hot chocolate.


  • Readability
  • Reusability
  • Extensible DSL

How to use it

Create Screen

Create your entity Screen where you will add the views involved in the interactions of the tests:

class FormScreen : Screen<FormScreen>()

Screen can represent the whole user interface or a portion of UI. If you are using Page Object pattern you can put the interactions of Kakao inside the Page Objects.

Create KView

Screen contains KView, these are the Android Framework views where you want to do the interactions:

class FormScreen : Screen<FormScreen>() {
    val phone = KEditText { withId(R.id.phone) }
    val email = KEditText { withId(R.id.email) }
    val submit = KButton { withId(R.id.submit) }

Kakao provides different types depending on the type of view:

  • KView
  • KEditText
  • KTextView
  • KButton
  • KImageView
  • KWebView
  • KCheckbox
  • KViewPager
  • KSeekBar
  • KSwitch
  • and more

Every KView contains matchers to retrieve the view involved in the ViewInteraction. Some examples of matchers provided by Kakao:

  • withId
  • withText
  • withContentDescription
  • withDrawable
  • withBackgroundColor
  • and more

Like in Espresso you can combine different matchers:

val email = KEditText { 

And you can use your custom matchers:

val email = KEditText { 
    matches { MyCustomMatcher.matches(position) }

Write the interaction.

The syntax of the test with Kakao is very easy, once you have the Screen and the KView defined, you only have to apply the actions or assertions like in Espresso:

onScreen<FormScreen> {
    phone {
    button {

Kakao provides multiple actions/assertions based on Espresso. Furthermore, you can combine them, just like the matchers. You can use your custom assertions or your custom actions too:

onScreen<FormScreen> {
    phone {
       assert { MyCustomAssertion.isThaiNumber() }
    button {
       act { MyCustomAction.clickOnTheCorner() }



Kakao offers an easy way to interact with your RecyclerView and ListView

Create the KListView/KRecyclerView

Inside your Screen create the KView matching with your view:

For KListView:

val list = KListView { builder = { withId(R.id.list) } }

For KRecyclerView:

val recycler = KRecyclerView { builder = { withId(R.id.recycler_view) } }

You can combine different matchers to retrieve your view.

Create KAdapterItem/KRecyclerItem

Every adapter contains different Items, Kakao provides an easy way to define the different items of your adapter with KAdapterItem and KRecyclerItem. If your adapter contains multiple Items but your interactions in your tests only work with one is not required to create all of them.


class Item(i: DataInteraction) : KAdapterItem<Item>(i) {
    val title = KTextView(i) { withId(R.id.title) }
    val subtitle = KTextView(i) { withId(R.id.subtitle) }
    val button = KButton(i) { withId(R.id.button) }


class Item(parent: Matcher<View>) : KRecyclerItem<Item>(parent) {
    val title: KTextView = KTextView(parent) { withId(R.id.title) }
    val subtitle: KTextView = KTextView(parent) { withId(R.id.subtitle) }

The KView defined in the Item corresponds views used on the Item. You can assign the KItems to the KListView/ KRecyclerView like:

val recycler: KRecyclerView = KRecyclerView({
}, itemTypeBuilder = {

And finally your final interaction will be:

onScreen<RecyclerScreen> {
    recycler {
        firstChild<TestRecyclerScreen.Item> {
            title { hasText("Title 1") }

Kakao provides different accessors in the adapter:

  • childAt
  • firstChild
  • lastChild
  • childWith
Custom KView

If you have custom Views in your tests and you want to create your own KView, we have KBaseView. Just extend this class and implement as much additional Action/Assertion interfaces as you want. You also need to override constructors that you need.

class KMyView : KBaseView<KView>, MyActions, MyAssertions {
    constructor(function: ViewBuilder.() -> Unit) : super(function)
    constructor(parent: Matcher<View>, function: ViewBuilder.() -> Unit) : super(parent, function)
    constructor(parent: DataInteraction, function: ViewBuilder.() -> Unit) : super(parent, function)

If you need to add custom logic during the Kakao -> Espresso call chain (for example, logging) or if you need to completely change the ViewAssertion or ViewAction that are being sent to Espresso during runtime in some cases, you can use the intercepting mechanism.

Interceptors are lambdas that you pass to a configuration DSL that will be invoked before ViewInteraction, DataInteraction or Web.WebInteraction classes' perform and check calls happening from inside Kakao.

You have the ability to provide interceptors at 3 different levels: Kakao runtime, your 'Screen' classes and any individual KView instance.

On each invocation of Espresso function that can be intercepted, Kakao will aggregate all available interceptors for this particular call and invoke them in descending order: KView interceptor -> Active Screens interceptors -> Kakao interceptor.

Each of the interceptors in the chain can break the chain call by setting isOverride to true during configuration. In that case Kakao will not only stop invoking remaining interceptors in the chain, but will not perform the Espresso call. It means that in such case, the responsibility to actually invoke Espresso lies on the shoulders of the developer.

Here's the examples of intercepting configurations:

class SomeTest {
    fun setup() {
        Kakao { // Kakao runtime
            intercept {
                onViewInteraction { // Intercepting calls on ViewInteraction classes across whole runtime
                    onPerform { interaction, action -> // Intercept perform() call
                        Log.d("KAKAO", "$interaction is performing $action")
    fun test() {
        onScreen<MyScreen> {
            intercept {
                onViewInteraction { // Intercepting calls on ViewInteraction classes while in the context of MyScreen
                    onCheck { interaction, assertion -> // Intercept check() call
                        Log.d("KAKAO", "$interaction is checking $assertion")
            myView {
                intercept { // Intercepting ViewInteraction calls on this individual view
                    onPerform(true) { interaction, action -> // Intercept perform() call and overriding the chain 
                        // When performing actions on this view, Kakao level interceptor will not be called
                        // and we have to manually call Espresso now.
                        Log.d("KAKAO_VIEW", "$interaction is performing $action")

For more detailed info please refer to the documentation.


Following archived versions are available in maven central:

  • 2.4.0
  • 2.3.4
  • 2.2.0
  • 2.1.0
  • 2.1.0-support
  • 1.4.0-androidx


  <version><latest version></version>

or Gradle:

repositories {

dependencies {
    androidTestImplementation 'com.agoda.kakao:kakao:<latest version>'


Default artifact starting from 2.0.0 includes AndroidX libraries to build upon. If you're still using old support libraries, please use 2.X.X-support artifact.

dependencies {
    androidTestImplementation 'com.agoda.kakao:kakao:2.1.0-support'

IMPORTANT: We stopped the development for the -support artifact and version 2.1.0-support is the latest version available with usage of support libraries. Please consider migrating to AndroidX.

Contribution Policy

Kakao is an open source project, and depends on its users to improve it. We are more than happy to find you interested in taking the project forward.

Kindly refer to the Contribution Guidelines for detailed information.

Code of Conduct

Please refer to Code of Conduct document.


Kakao is open source and available under the Apache License, Version 2.0.

Thanks to